The term “clause 49” refers to clause 49 of the listing agreement between a company and the exchanges on which it is listed (the listing agreement is the same for all Indian exchanges, including the NSE and the BSE). This clause is a recent addition to the Listing Agreement and was not inserted until 2000 following the recommendations of the Kumarmangalam Birla Committee on Corporate Governance, established in 1999 by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Article 49 of the SEBI Corporate Governance Guidelines in the amended version of October 10, 2004 significantly changed the definition of independent directors, strengthened the competence of audit committees, improved the quality of financial information, including transactions with related parties, and the returns on public/rights/preference issues that require boards of directors to adopt a formal code of conduct, require ceo/CFO validation of accounts, and improve shareholder advertising. Some non-binding clauses, such as whistleblower policy and the limitation of the mandate of independent directors, were also included.  Second, the adoption of uniform regulations for the requirements applicable under various securities listing agreements. Regulations 23 (4) and 31A should be immediately put forward, with the ordinary resolution to be adopted in place of a special resolution for all significant transactions with related parties that were abstained, in accordance with the provisions of the 2013 Companies Act. And the reclassification of project proponents as public shareholders under different circumstances. The regulation has been converted into a consolidated form to make all listed agreements a single structured document for simple referencing. The insert regulations were divided into two parts, i.e., (a) the physical provisions that were added to the main part of the regulations; b) procedural rules in the form of settlement plans.  “Corporate governance aims to maintain a balance between economic and social objectives and between individual and local objectives. The governance framework is intended to promote the efficient use of resources and to require responsibility for the management of these resources. The aim is to coordinate the best interests of individuals, businesses and society. -Sir Adrian Cadbury, UK, Commission Report: Corporate Governance 1992 The fundamental criterion on which the entire list of agreements is based is corporate governance.
Currently, there are 54 clauses in the list agreement and all on the basis of that concept.